Evidences throw light on the fact that it is the combined effect of unstinting research activities and their outcomes that allowed the global community catapult to the technological pinnacle humankind ascended to.
Research outcomes play decisive role in alleviating natural and man made challenges that beset humankind. They as well have key role in rendering the lives of citizens comfy.
Though, mother earth abounds in multifaceted blessings,there are harmful microbial(or microorganisms) that militate against the health of human beings and animals. Not only that they also curtail the benefits humankind derive from earth's bounties.
Ethiopia is blessed with an ecosystem conducive for biodiversity. Ironically though,the same ecosystem could serve a hotbed for the multiplication of microbial inimical to health.
Aside from the loss animal disease inflict on the national economy,its repercussion on social health is enormous. Various studies attribute 75 per cent of the diseases that affect humankind to animals. Aside from augmenting the economy, researches done on animal diseases play a major role in maintaining human health.
As research institutions that conduct research in a coordinated and responsible manner were in short supply, research activities had been conducted in a discordant manner in few institutions. Among these institutions is found National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center(NAHDIC).
In concert with various institutions here and abroad, NAHDIC conducts various troubleshooting theoretical and practical researches. It was in 1995 NAHDIC was established to conduct central and referral studies of animal diseases. Starting from 2007, assuming its current name, it had been embraced under the Agricultural Research Institute.
NAHDIC had identified 11 disease checking methods that won ISO17025/2005 recognition.
Currently, it is reorganized under Ministry of Livestock and Fishery. Conducting health assurance to animals due for export,checking the health of imported animals for better breed,undertaking a fast research when outbreak of diseases and endemics occur and conducting a streamlined reconnaissance on animal diseases are but to mention a few of its activities. The research it conducts also serves as a springboard to the development of the animal sector. Moreover, in 2016 the center had built a modern microbiology laboratory furnished with state of the art equipment that allows it build its research muscles.
The fact that the center has managed to effectively parry the possible spread of the Ebola Virus that broke out in East African countries recently effectively conducting the identification and examination of people suspected to be affected by the virus is praise worthy. It as well is a testimonial that the center has developed its experience and capacity.
As data of the center reveal starting from 2000, young and seasoned researchers had produced over 150 research works published on international journals as well as on the center's publication. Few of the publications.
- A laboratory testing material to measure antibodies to ward off the anthrax -like disease/Peste des petits Ruminants(PPR)/ that normally attack sheep and goats
- A research outcome made to improve the quality of hide of sheep and goats. The research has helped to fight off the external parasites that highly affect the quality of hides. This way it was made possible to downsize by 10.9% the quality problem that belittle hide processed for various purpose.
- The antibodies measuring instrument for the Newcastle disease affecting chickens at most parts of the country was produced. Conducting a through study on the diseases that resurfaces changing its form, NAHDIC has come up with a vaccine. Leech, having a scientific name Lymnatis nilotica, is one of the worms affecting the lives of animals. Designing strategic ways to fight it off is decisive. Taking this into account and by way of troubleshooting the problem mixing 20g/ml phytolacca dodecandra (or endode) in water NAHDIC has managed to arrest the worm.
- In a fishing farm pool found in Adama town of the Oromia state a study was conducted to identify the cause of the outbreak of the disease that affect rainbow trout fish . The cause of the disease was found to be a bacteria referred as Yersinia ruckeri and the presence of a protozoa called Trichodina was detected for the first time. In a study conducted to assure drugs that could kill the bacteria 4 drugs namely Oxytetracycline, Furazolidone, Trimethoprim and Streptomycin were examned. Their efficacy is ensured. The increment in the temperature of water bodies,the decrement of the quality of water as well as the attack the fishes suffer from Trichodina are reasons for the tight grip of the disease.
- A research was conducted on a fish-farming pool found at Sebeta following the outbreak of a disease that affected a fish species called African catfish. It was found that the causes of the outbreak were Aeromonas hydrophila and Ichthyophthirius multifillis.
Downsizing the number of fishes in the pool, washing the pool and washing the fishes affected by the disease with 3 % sodium it was made possible to contain the disease.
- A study was conducted to identify the exact cause of the Foot- to-Mouth disease that changes its behavior from place to place,high land and lowlands. The protective method was made to relay on local strain.
- Two laboratory techniques useful for identifying Lumpy Skin disease were identified.
- Brucellosis causes a continuous miscarriage on animals. Contangeious by nature it could be transmitted from animals to human beings. There are three examination kits to the disease--Rose bengal, Complement Fixation and Indirect ELISA. Indirect ELISA was found to be more efficacious and affordable.
The above enumerated outcomes are but a few of the NAHDIC's achievements. Though various research outcomes have found their ways to farmers and patoralists village, there is still a lot to be desired in light of the unmatched number of animals the country has in the continent as well as the number of diseases that crop up every time or possibly prop up.
The research outcomes are the results of the effort,time and finance spent over them. Hence, they must not remain paper tiger ones relegated to shelves. Increasing the product and productivity of the animals warding off the health challenges that beset them it is possible to boost the return the country garners from its animal wealth.
To curb the hard currency shortage posing a challenge on Ethiopia owing to some problems like lack in quality in exportable animals and animal products research activities have immense role.
Needless to say such researchers have to be patted on the back.
Translation BY ALEM HAILU